Amphibians and Reptiles of Minnesota

A Complete On-line Field Guide to Minnesota's Amphibians and Reptiles

Canadian Toad - Anaxyrus hemiophrys PDF Print E-mail
Frogs, Toads and Treefrogs of Minnesota - Frogs, Toads and Treefrogs of Minnesota

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Canadian toad, Bufo hemiophrys, from Ottertail County, MN


Canadian toad calling, Stevens County, MN










No status assigned in Minnesota.


The Canadian toad may get up to 3 inches in body length. It is very similar in appearance to the American toad. Canadian toads are white or light brown with dark spots scattered randomly about the back. These spots may be brown, black, or even reddish and are outlined in white. Each spot contains one to three warts. The belly is light colored and has dark markings, especially on the chest. The thighs usually have a yellowish wash. The parotoid glands are rather indistinct. The cranial boss or "bump" located between the eyes is the only consistent characteristic that distinguishes this toad from the American toad.


There are no subspecies of Anaxyrus hemiophrys recognized. Previously known as the Dakota toad and Manitoba toad. This species was formerly placed in the genus Bufo.


The Canadian toad's Minnesota range is very similar to the Great Plains toad's range. It is restricted to the western third of Minnesota. Unlike the Great Plains toad, however, the Canadian toad's range seems to stop around the Minnesota River.


This is Minnesota's most aquatic toad. They live in a variety of habitats like wetlands, pastures, forests, grasslands, even in towns. They are not found inside dry prairies. They overwinter in Mima mounds in the north.


This toad is very similar to the American toad in appearance, habitat preference, habits, and even their calls are similar. Canadian toads are much more likely to be found during the day or out and about without rainfall than the Great Plains toad. Canadian toads breed mainly in the spring. Their call sounds like that of the American toads' but a single call does not last as long and is slightly lower pitched. They overwinter communally in Mima mounds.


They eat any small insects or earthworms and may even feed on harmful invertebrates in agricultural areas.


A Canadian toad from Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota


A pair of Canadian toads in amplexus, Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota

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