Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus)

Mudpuppy                               (Necturus maculosus)

by Jeff LeClere

An adult mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, from Clayton County, Iowa.
A mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, from Clayton County, Iowa.


THREATENED and Species of Greatest Conservation Need. It is illegal to kill or collect this species by law in Iowa. Found only in rivers and large streams, or connected ponds, these salamanders are often caught on hook and line while fishing off the bottom. Formerly listed as endangered. Many alert Iowa anglers have submitted reports with photos when they have caught mudpuppies. Their submissions have been very useful. A study conducted by the Iowa DNR, USFWS, and myself are providing information about mudpuppy populations in the Mississippi River. Any sightings in Iowa should be reported to us or the DNR.

A mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, from Winnesheik County, Iowa.


The mudpuppy is Iowa’s largest salamander reaching lengths of 13-16 inches. They are also our only salamander species that is entirely aquatic its entire life. Adults are brown, reddish-brown, or gray above with varying numbers and sizes of black spots. Ventrally, they are gray with dark mottling. They have four toes on the front and back feet. Long, feathery red gills are very obvious on the sides of the head. The head is large and flattened. They have small, lidless eyes that do not bulge out from the head like our other salamanders. The tail is laterally compressed with fins above and below that give the tail a paddle-like look. This salamander is extremely slimy and it is nearly impossible to hold on to a specimen with bare hands.


The only subspecies found in Iowa is the common mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus maculosus.


Range map for the mudpuppy in Iowa
Range map for the mudpuppy in Iowa

Mudpuppies are found in eastern Iowa along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries. Most of the records are very old, and the disturbance/alteration of large rivers have undoubtedly aided in their decline.

Iowa mudpuppy
A mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, captive specimen.


Mudpuppies are found in medium to large rivers and lakes with all types of bottoms. In clear, fast moving rivers and streams, mudpuppies have small, compressed gills. In warm or slow moving rivers and lakes they have big, bushy gills. They take refuge under sunken objects such as rocks, logs, boards, and other debris. They have been taken at depths of 90 feet in large lakes.

A mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, from Clayton County, Iowa.


Mudpuppies are active year round. They are mainly nocturnal in shallow water. They breed in fall and early winter. The female lays up to 100 eggs in late spring and summer. She digs a cavity under an object such as a rock or log and turns upside down to attach her eggs to the roof of her nest. She guards them until they hatch and the young may stay with her a while after they hatch. The young are very small and are marked with one yellow dorsolateral stripe down each side of the back. The pattern changes relatively slowly until they look like adults. This may take five years (Bishop, 1941).

Anglers often catch mudpuppies while they are fishing. Many believe them to be poisonous or venomous and will cut their line before touching them. This is false; mudpuppies are not poisonous or venomous, but large specimens may occasionally give a good bite if handled roughly. The majority are completely harmless and inoffensive. Sightings of mudpuppies should be reported to the IA DNR or us.


Mudpuppies will eat anything they can catch. Crustaceans, insects, worms, fish, fish eggs, salamanders, and crayfish are all reported foods. Mudpuppies probably do not have keen eyesight and rely heavily upon olfactory cues to find their prey.

An adult mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, from Clayton County, Iowa.
A mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, from Clayton County, Iowa.